How did they create colors 30,000 years ago?

Cave paintings let us learn about the lives of people long ago. People painted animals and even painted outlines of their hands on the walls of the caves “Cave painting” usually refers to drawings and paintings on the walls of prehistoric caves. Researches prove that cave paintings began around 30,000 BC and the most impressing ones are discovered in France and Spain, but there are also many different decorated caves around all the continents of the world. The importance of the early examples of the cave art is their monochromic painting style with only one color. Different from the early examples, other polychromic cave art contain mostly the red and black color. They used many different methods to create the colored paints and I think they did great job as the colors can be seen today.  Stone Age painters employed several different combinations of materials to make coloured paints. Clay ochre provided three basic colours: numerous varieties of red, plus yellow and brown. For black colour, artists used either manganese dioxide or charcoal. After grinding the pigments to fine powder, artists mixed the powder with cave water (typically high in calcium carbonate) animal fats, vegetable juice, blood and urine to help it stick to the rock surface. They also used extenders like biotite and feldspar, or ground quartz and calcium phosphate (obtained from crushed, heated animal bone).

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